11111

Supplemental: Ticks

Common Name Scientific Name Habitat / Ecology Hosts Vector Potenial / Diseases
Short-legged Bird Argassid Argas brevippes Life cycle from egg to adult is 48-82 days. Adults have been known to live up to one year without feeding. Lives in close association with birds. Not commonly collected. Birds, especially Owls, Mearns’ Gilded Flicker, Sparrow Hawks, Violet-Green Swallows, and Cactus Wrens None known
Cattle Tick Boophilus annulatus Life cycle completed on a single host and lasts from 39 – 259 days (egg to engorged adult). Females known to produce 2000 to more than 4000 eggs. Larvae climb to tips of vegetation and attach to passing hosts. Usually cattle although deer, horses, sheep, goats and buffalo can serve as hosts. Vector of Texas Cattle Fever (Babesia bigemina)to cattle
Pacific Coast Tick Dermacentor occidentalis Common, widespread Californian tick. Adults are found year-round with peak activity in April and May. Nymphs are most common during spring and summer. Adult hosts tend to be cattle, horses, deer and humans. Rare on dogs and bears. Nymphs tend to feed on rodents and other small mammals. Capable of transmitting many diseases. Vector of bovine anaplasmosis. Has been found naturally infected with Colorado Tick Fever virus, the Rickettsia of Q Fever and the bacterium that causes Tularemia. Known to cause tick paralysisin cattle, horses and deer. Spotted fever group Rickettsiae have been found in ticks collected from Mendocino County. Bite wounds are commonly mistaken for wounds caused by biting insects and spiders.
American Dog Tick Dermacentor variabilis Widespread Californian tick. Life cycle can be completed in less than one year or take longer than two years if suitable hosts are not available. Adults are present year-round while nymphs and larvae are most active late winter to summer. Adult females may take up to 13 days to complete feeding on a host and can produce as many as 6500 eggs during their lifetime. Immature ticks are capable of surviving extreme winter temperatures. Dogs are the preferred host although adults will feed on humans and many other species of large wild and domesticated mammals. Larvae and nymphs tend to feed on rodents and rabbits. Important vector of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, especially in the Eastern United States. Vector of Tularemiato humans. Known to cause tick paralysis.
Rabbit Tick Haemaphysalis leporispalustris Widely distributed throughout the western hemisphere. Adult and nympal ticks present year-round although most common in the spring. Larval ticks are found spring, summer and fall. Adults feed exclusively on rabbits. Larvae and nymphs tend to feed on rodents and ground frequenting birds. Important in maintaining Rocky Mountain Spotted Feverand Tularemiain reservoir animals in nature but does not transmit these diseases to humans since this tick does not bite humans.
N/A Ixodes angustus Widely distributed throughout North America. Commonly found in rodent nests and rarely on hosts. Not known to quest for hosts like many other tick species. Rodents are the preferred host, especially meadow mice (Microtus sp.)and deer mice (Peromyscus sp.). Rarely bites humans or dogs. None known.
N/A Ixodes auritulus Not commonly encountered although it appears activity occurs year-round. Tends to feed on birds, especially ground frequenting galliform and passerine birds. None known.
Western Black-legged Tick Ixodes pacificus Widespread Californian Tick. Life cycle can be completed in less than one year but usually lasts about two years. Females overwinter, laying eggs in the spring on the undersides of brush and dried leaves. Eggs hatch during early summer. Nymphs and adults seek hosts (quest) from the tips of vegetation while larval ticks find hosts close to the ground. Most commonly encountered Ixodestick in California. Adults occur year-round but are most commonly found November through May. Nymphs are most commonly found March through June but can be found year-round. Immature stages commonly found on Alligator Lizards, Fence Lizards, and ground inhabiting birds. Sometimes found on small rodents and rabbits. Large mammals are also important hosts for larvae and nymphs. Adults are common on deer and other large mammals (dogs, bears, cats, horses, humans, etc.). Vector of Lyme Disease. Has caused tick paralysisin a dog. Bites can cause painful sores.
N/A Ixodes woodi Not common. Mostly found on wood rats or in their nests in the foothill and low mountainous regions of California. Primary host is the wood rat. Sometimes found on skunks. None known.
Pajahuello Tick Ornithodoros coriaceus Life cycle from egg to adult lasts more than one year. Commonly found in the bedding/resting areas of deer and cattle, especially in chaparral under oaks and brush. Larvae feed on the host for up to 9 days, nymphs about 1 1/2 hours, and adults no more than 50 minutes. Nymphs have seven instars, each requiring a blood meal. Cattle, deer, and most warm blooded animals. Humans are accidental hosts. None known. Bites tend to cause severe responses in humans ranging from painful inflammatory wounds to severe allergic reactions.
Brown Dog Tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus Commonly found in dog kennels or homes with dogs. Eggs laid in cracks. Commonly hide under rugs and furniture. Primarily dogs. Rarely humans and other domestic and wild animals. Canine babesiosis, canine ehrlichiosis, implicated in transmission of spotted fever group rickettsiae.